Neo

Berita dari Yogya

Orang tidak lagi kaget, bahwa di Yogya ada banyak mall. Banyak dalam arti tidak hanya satu, melainkan lebih dari 5 mall. Atau setidaknya jumlahnya ada 8 mall. Diantara banyaknya mall di Yogya, pasar tradisional masih mudah ditemukan Artinya, kehidupan pasar tradisional “berdampingan” dengan pasar modern. Pasar modern semuanya ada di tengah kota, bahkan di pusat-pusat kota, pasar tradisional menyebar di banyak tempat, termasuk di desa-desa.

Salah satu pasar tradisional dan hanya khusus menyediakan satu jenis barang ialah pasar telo di Karangkajen. Orang Yogya pastilah mengenal nama pasar telo Karangkajen. Letaknya di tepi jalan, di sebelah selatan Yogya jalan lintas menuju jl. Imogiri.

Pasar telo ini, untuk kawasan Karangkajen seperti telah menjadi tanda untuk menunjuk sesuatu. Artinya, kapan orang mencari relasi atau apa di kawasan Karangkajen, istilah “karo pasar telo ngendine” (sebelah mananya dari pasar telo) biasanya diucapkan. Dari tanda pasar telo itu, biasanya pula orang akan mudah menemukan tempat yang akan dicari.

Telo atau ketela, baik ketela rambat (telo pendem) atau pohung (telo kaspo) bisa didapatkan di pasar telo ini. Dalam jumlah yang tidak sedikit, kios-kios di pasar telo menimbun dagangannya. Dari pasar telo di Karangkaen ini kemudian telo menyebar atau didistrubusikan ke banyak tempat, termasuk pada para pedagang gorengan.

Pada pedagang gorengan inilah ketela kemudian berubah bentuk dan berganti nama. Ada yang namanya limpung, balok, gethuk, cothot dan seterusnya. Nama-nama jenis makanan yang berasal dari ketela itu merupakan jenis makanan lokal (jawa) yang bentuknya bermacam-macam.

Tampaknya pasar telo tidak terlalu terpengaruh atas kehadiran mall. Karena relasi pasar telo adalah para bakul yang akan kembali menjual ketela yang dibeli kepada konsumen lainnya, yang sifatnya individual. Artinya, ketela sulit ditemukan di super market yang telah dikemas, misalnya seperti mentimun. Barangkali, karena kondisi ketela yang (biasanya) masih tertempel tanah pada kulit ketela, membuat super market tidak “tertarik” untuk memajangnya.

Soalnya bukan, apakah ketela bisa ditemukan di pasar tradisional atau tidak. Yang lebih penting untuk dimengerti adalah, bahwa di Yogya, jenis pasar khusus seperti pasar telo di Karangkajen, atau pasar buah di Gamping, tidak meninggalkan relasinya. Yang menarik dari pasar telo adalah, dari segi tempat, sampai sekarang tidak berpindah tempat. Masih tetap di Karangkajen, sehingga kapan menyebut nama Karangkajen asosiasi orang Yogya akan mengarah pada pasar telo.

Dan yang lebih menarik lagi, kondisi pasar telo sekarang jauh lebih tertata dan bersih dari pasar telo beberapa tahun lalu. Pada beberapa tahun lalu, ketela yang ditimbun sampai memenuhi tepi jalan, tetapi sekarang telah jauh lebih rapi.

Yogya dan ketela tampaknya seperti “sahabat seiring”, artinya mudah sekali ditemukan ketela berikut varian makanan yang dibuat dari ketela. Bermacam jenis makana gorengan dari ketela adalah bentuk dari “sahabat seiring” itu.

Ons Untoro

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Yams are a staple food

Yams are a staple food in Africa, Indonesia, the Caribbean, China, Korea, and India.
Often confused with sweet potatoes, yams rarely appear in American markets, except in cities with large ethnic populations. This thick tuber, grown on tropical vines, is a staple food in Africa, where it originated, and in Indonesia, the Caribbean, China, Korea, and India. Yams are similar in size and shape to sweet potatoes, but contain more natural sugar and have a higher moisture content.

Varieties
There are more than 150 species of yam, with a wide variety of sizes and shapes. The flesh ranges in color from off-white and yellow to purple and pink.

Buying and storing tips
Yams can be found in specialty markets and Latin American markets. Look for those with tight, unblemished skins, and store them in a paper bag in a cool, dark location for up to two weeks.

Availability
Yams are available throughout the year, depending on the variety.

Preparation, uses, and tips
Scrub yams just before using them, and cook them as you would a potato, either baking, steaming, frying, or boiling and mashing.

Nutritional Highlights
Yams, 1 cup (125g) (raw, cubes)
Calories: 177
Protein: 2.3g
Carbohydrate: 41.8g
Total Fat: 0.25g
Fiber: 6.1g
*Excellent source of: Potassium (1,224mg), Vitamin C (25.6mg), and Vitamin B6 (0.44mg)
*Good source of: Thiamine (0.168mg)

*Foods that are an “excellent source” of a particular nutrient provide 20% or more of the Recommended Daily Value. Foods that are a “good source” of a particular nutrient provide between 10 and 20% of the Recommended Daily Value.

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Getuk Ireng

Kini jajan pasar sudah banyak dimodifikasi,
baik rasa maupun penampilannya.
Adakalanya kita rindu jajan pasar dengan resep asli yang tradisional. Keinginan itu pun mudah dengan cara membuat sendiri.
Resep ini diambil Ibu Warsini,
yang sudah bertahun-tahun mengeluti bisnis jajanan pasar.

Bahan:
500 gr tepung gaplek
700 ml air
50 gr merang, bakar, tumbuk
150 gr gula pasir
1/4 sdt garam

Pelengkap:
1/2 bh kelapa muda, parut panjang
1/4 sdt garam
1 lbr daun pandan
50 gr gula pasir

Cara membuat:

  1. Rebus air bersama merang hingga mendidih, angkat, saring, sisihkan.
  2. Aduk rata tepung gaplek bersama gula pasir dan garam, tuang air merang sedikit demi sedikit hingga dapat diuleni, ratakan.
  3. Masukkan dalam dandang yang telah dipanaskan, kukus hingga matang.
  4. Keluarkan dari dandang, letakkan dalam loyang yang telah dialas daun pisang, ratakan, giling hingga tebal 1 1/2 cm, dinginkan, potong-potong sebesar 2 x 2 cm.
  5. Campur kelapa muda dengan garam hingga rata, tambahkan daun pandan, kukus hingga matang, angkat.
  6. Sajikan getuk ireng dengan kelapa muda dan taburi gula pasir.

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Serawut Singkong

Sudah jarang makanan seperti ini,
Serawut Singkong juga termasuk
jajanan pasar yang digemari masyarakat dulunya
Sekarang.....terserah anda
Serawut Singkong salah satu makanan
bahan dasar dari singkong

Bahan:
250 gr singkong
100 gr gula pasir
1/4 sdm garam atau secukupnya
1 lbr daun pandan

Pelengkap:
1/4 bh kelapa muda, parut panjang
1 lbr daun pandan
25 gr gula pasir

Cara membuat:

  1. Kupas singkong, cuci bersih, parut kasar dengan parutan sawut, aduk bersama garam dan gula pasir.
  2. Masukkan dalam dandang yang telah dipanaskan, tambahkan daun pandan kukus hingga matang.
  3. Keluarkan dari dandang, tuang di atas loyang yang telah dialas daun pisang, ratakan atasnya sambil ditekan-tekan agar padat, dinginkan, potong-potong 2 x 2 cm.
  4. Campur kelapa muda dengan garam, aduk rata, tambahkan daun pandan, kukus hingga matang, angkat.
  5. Sajikan sawut singkong dengan kelapa parut dan taburi gula pasir.

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Tiwul vs Gatot

Tiwul, atau Thiwul adalah makanan pokok pengganti nasi beras yang dibuat dari ketela pohon atau singkong khas masyarakat pegunungan kidul (Pacitan, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul ) Cita rasa gaplek sangat khas dan unik. Sebagai makanan pokok, kandungan kalorinya masih dibawah beras namun cukup memenuhi sebagai bahan makanan pengganti beras. Konon nasi tiwul dipercaya mencegah penyakit maag.

Makan tiwul tidak membuat merasa miskin, aku dulu pernah cerita kalau belinya seribu rupiah 1 bungkus di penjual yang selalu teriak2 tiwuuuul...gatot, enak rasanya mau bikin sendiri ini resepnya...

Bahan:
300 gr tepung gaplek atau tepung tapioka (tepung cassava)
70 ml air
2 lbr daun pandan
100 gr gula merah, sisir

Taburan:
1/4 btr kelapa muda parut panjang
1 lbr daun pandan
1/4 sdt garam

Cara membuat:

  1. Taruh tepung gaplek di atas tampah, perciki dengan air sambil diaduk-aduk hingga adonan berbutir seperti pasir, sisihkan.
  2. Masukkan adonan ke dalam dandang yang telah dipanaskan dan dialasi daun pisang, taruh gula merah sisir secara acak, kukus hingga 60 menit, angkat.
  3. Kukus pula kelapa parut dengan daun pandan dan garam selama 15 menit, angkat.
  4. Sajikan tiwul bersama kelapa parut.


Gatot
Bukan nama orang tapi makanan atau jajan pasar tetapi jarang orang yang membuatnya

Bahan:
250 gr Singkong (cassava)
Air apu (air dari rendaman kapur)

Taburan:
1/4 btr kelapa muda parut panjang
1/4 sdt garam

Cara membuat:
  1. Kupas singkong, cuci bersih, potong2 agak besar
  2. Masukkan dalam dandang yang telah dipanaskan, kukus hingga matang.
  3. Keluarkan dari dandang, kemdian potong2 kurang lebih tebal 1 cm
  4. Kemudian jemur sampai kering, setelah kering agak ke hitam2 an (untuk menjemur memang memerlukan waktu yang lama)
  5. Setelah kering rendam di air apu kurang lebih 1 jam
  6. Tiriskan dulu baru kemudian masukkan dalam dandang yang telah dipanaskan, kukus hingga matang.
  7. Sajikan Gatot dengan kelapa parut yang sudah diberi garam secukupnya

Catatan :
Gaplek adalah bahan makanan yang diolah dari umbi ketela pohon atau singkong.
Prosesnya sangat mudah; umbi singkong yang telah dipanen kemudian dikupas dan dikeringkan. Gaplek yang telah kering kemudian bisa ditumbuk sebagai tepung tapioka yang bisa dibuat bermacam-macam kue. Tepung tapioka dari gaplek selanjutnya bisa dibuat menjadi nasi tiwul yang gurih. Nasi tiwul sangat populer di masyarjavascript:void(0)
Mempublikasikan Postingakat yang hidup di Pegunungan Kidul yang memanjang dari Gunung Kidul di Yogyakarta sampai kawasan kabupaten Pacitan.

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Lagi, Proses Tapioka


Pusat Pembelajaran Masyarakat Produktif merupakan kegiatan pembelajaran iptek masyarakat melalui penyebaran informasi ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi kepada masyarakat khususnya stakeholder kegiatan Pembelajaran Iptek di Pusat Pengkajian Kebijakan Peningkatan Daya Saing - Pengkajian Kebijakan Teknologi BPPT.

Jenis Peralatan yang dipergunakan untuk mengolah singkong menjadi tepung tapioka :

1. Silet
2. Telenan
3. Bak cuci Singkong
4. Parutan
6. Bak pengendapan
7. Bak penampungan onggok
8. Motor Penggerak
9. Sekop dan Cangkul
10. Pelataran Jemur
11. Gilesan
12. Garuk Jeruji
13. Garuk Sorok
14. Disk Mill
15. Ekrak Besi
16. Timbangan

Baca deh selengkapnya di Kedai IPTEX
Semoga Berguna walau sudah lama.......

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Mesin Perajang Umbi-Umbian

Di TokoMesin.com menyediakan alat dan mesin perajang umbi-umbian, mesin perajang singkong, mesin perajang kentang, mesin perajang untuk produk-umbi-umbian



Spesifikasi mesin perajang umbi-umbian :

Bahan

Disk pisau : Baja
Pisau : Stainless Steel
Frame : Besi
Hopper : Stainless Steel


Jumlah Pisau
2 buah

Posisi disk
Vertikal

Penggerak
Motor dinamo

Hubungi :
Maksindo Cipta Utama - PT. Toko Mesin Maksindo
Jl. Kresna No. 2 Malang - Jawa Timur - Indonesia
Via Telp. 0341-342223, 0341-351708, 0341 - 7770016, 7711871, 081 233 86165 (Senin-Sabtu, Pkl. 08.00 - 16.00 WIB. Minggu LIBUR)
Fax. 0341-351708

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PERAJANG SINGKONG MANUAL (Sistem Engkol)

FUNGSI

Merajang singkong yang sudah dikupas,
sehingga menjadi tipis-tipis dan siap diolah atau digoreng menjadi keripik.



CARA KERJA

  • Siapkan bahan yang akan dirajang.
  • Asah dan bersihkan pisau perajang sebelum dipakai
  • Posisi pisau disetel sesuai dengan ketebalan yang diinginkan
  • Kemudian bahan yang akan dirajang diletakkan pada pisau perajang sambil didorong pelan-pelan, sehingga bahan terajang semuanya.
  • Selesai bekerja, alat dibersihkan supaya tahan lama.

SPESIFIKASI
  • Dimensi alat : P = 40 cm; L = 30 cm; T = 50 cm
  • Berat : 2 kg
  • Tenaga penggerak : Manual
  • Kapasitas kerja : ---
  • Operator : 1 orang
  • Bahan : Besi siku, alumunium

KONTAK HUBUNGAN
Bagian Proyek Teknologi Tepat Guna, Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna, LIPI;
Jl. KS. Tubun No. 5 Subang; Tel./Fax. (0260) 417348, 411478

Sumber :
Alat-Alat Teknologi Pedesaan Spesifikasi Produk, Bagian Proyek Teknologi Tepat Guna,
Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna, LIPI

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PERAJANG SINGKONG TIPE II

FUNGSI
Merajang singkong yang sudah dikupas,
sehingga menjadi tipis-tipis dan siap diolah atau digoreng menjadi keripik.




CARA KERJA

  • Siapkan bahan yang akan dirajang.
  • Asah dan bersihkan pisau perajang sebelum dipakai
  • Motor dihidupkan, posisi pisau disetel sesuai dengan ketebalan yang diinginkan.
  • Kemudian bahan yang akan dirajang diletakkan pada pisau perajang sambil didorong pelan-pelan, sehingga bahan terajang semuanya.
  • Selesai bekerja, alat dibersihkan supaya tahan lama.

SPESIFIKASI
  • Dimensi alat : P = 60 cm; L = 40 cm; T = 100 cm
  • Berat : 8,5 kg
  • Tenaga penggerak : Motor penggerak
  • Kapasitas kerja : 4) 80 kg
  • Operator : 1 orang
  • Bahan : Besi siku, alumunium

KONTAK HUBUNGAN
Bagian Proyek Teknologi Tepat Guna, Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna, LIPI;
Jl. KS. Tubun No. 5 Subang; Tel./Fax. (0260) 417348, 411478

Sumber :
Alat-Alat Teknologi Pedesaan Spesifikasi Produk, Bagian Proyek Teknologi Tepat Guna,
Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna, LIPI

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TAPIOCA - PEARL (2)

General Description:
A starchy substance extracted from the root of the CASSAVA plant. It's available in several forms including granules, flakes, pellets (called pearl tapioca ) and flour or starch. The most widely available forms are tapioca flour (also called cassava flour ) and pearl tapioca. The flour is used as a thickening agent for soups, fruit fillings, glazes, etc., much like CORNSTARCH.
Pearl tapioca is used mainly to make pudding and comes in several sizes, regular or instant forms and in a variety of prepackaged flavors. Pearl tapioca is available in most supermarkets, whereas the other forms are more commonly found in health-food stores and Asian markets. If stored in a cool, dark place, all types of tapioca will keep indefinitely.

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Chébe Bread

Made from the tropical manioc plant, a.k.a. cassava or yucca.
Ingredients: Manioc (tapioca) flour, modified manioc starch, dry milk, and salt. Package includes directions for rolls or sticks along with tips on making pizza. Their web site, www.chebe.com as recipes for hamburger buns, different flavored rolls, cinnamon balls, and more. Chébe Bread can also be frozen.

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Cassava and cheese fritters






Ingredients


½kg/1lb 1½oz fresh peeled cassava (must remove the fibrous centre from it)
200g/7¼oz feta cheese
4 whole eggs
1 tbsp chopped parsley
1 tbsp chopped spring onion
salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
oil, for deep-frying

Method

  1. Boil the cassava for at least 20 minutes, then drain and let rest for five minutes in the colander, to make sure it is thoroughly dry.
  2. Mash the cassava with a potato masher (do not use a food processor as it will make it too gooey).
  3. Add all the other ingredients, except the oil, and mix well.
  4. Heat the oil in a pan until very hot (CAUTION: Hot oil is very dangerous. Do not leave unattended). Using two dry spoons, shape the dough into dumplings.
  5. Drop the dumplings into the hot oil and fry for at least five minutes. Put five or six dumplings together and then take one first to check if it is done. All the ingredients are already cooked so the centre can be a little soft.
  6. Serve with salsa, or prepare the day before and serve in a bowl of soup.

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Sancocho

SUBMITTED BY: John Camacho
PHOTO BY: Kristen

"This is a typical dish from Colombia, South America. A chicken stew made with plantain and cassava that is served with a fresh tomato and onion sauce."


INGREDIENTS

  • 2 1/2 quarts water
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro
  • 4 cloves garlic, crushed
  • 6 chicken leg quarters
  • 2 plantains, peeled and cut into 6 pieces
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 2 pounds potatoes, peeled
  • 4 pounds fresh cassava roots, cut into 6 pieces
  • 2 tablespoons cooking oil
  • 4 large onions, peeled and thinly sliced
  • 1 teaspoon ground cumin, or to taste
  • 1/2 teaspoon mild paprika, or to taste
  • 1 teaspoon salt, or to taste
  • 1 pound tomatoes, chopped
DIRECTIONS
  1. Place the water into a large pot, and add 1 tablespoon salt , chopped cilantro (coriander), garlic, chicken legs, plantains, and 1 onion. Bring to a boil, and cook for about 20 minutes. Add the potatoes and cassava to the pot, and continue to cook for another 20 minutes, or until potatoes are tender.
  2. While the chicken and vegetables are cooking, heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Fry the onions in the hot oil, and season with cumin, paprika, and salt. When the onions are limp, stir in the tomatoes, and remove from heat.
  3. Spoon the chicken stew into bowls, and serve topped with the tomato onion sauce.

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Badia Yuca (Cassava) - Ready to Eat

Yuca (also known as Cassava) is a root that is traditionally used as a side dish in Latin American cuisine. It is quite similar to potatoes and has a delicious white pulp that can be stewed, boiled or fried and is often served with mojo criollo.

Net Wt. 15oz. (425.2g)
Product of Costa Rica

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Manioc grater and squeezer

Manioc grater : H8945 Curipaco, Vaups River Basin, Colombia
Manioc squeezer : H8830 Orinoco River Ocanpo, Venezuela

Slash-and-burn farming peoples in the Amazon Basin live on manioc (cassava), which is poisonous, using diverse tools to eliminate the poison. First peeling the manioc tuber, they usually grate it on a grater where numerous pointed pebbles are embedded. Then, they stuff the grated manioc into a cylindrical basket, and squeeze it. Finally, the manioc starch, from which the juice has been removed, is thinly spread over an earthen baking pan, baked on both sides, and eaten as bread.

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Alat Pencetak PATILO

Pencetak mekanis patilo (sejenis makanan ringan dengan bahan dasar ketela pohonatau cassava) untuk meningkatkan kapasitas kerja proses pencetakan sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan produksi patilo.

Cara Kerja
Tuang adonan pada silinder atas tempat bahan.

Hidupkan mesin dan tekan adonan tersebut dengan alat penekan sehingga adonan akan keluar dari plat pencetak berpori.

Tampunglah hasil cetakan pada plat penampung.

Spesifikasi Teknis
Bagian-bagian utama alat pencetak ialah

(1) tabung dari baja nirkarat dengan diameter dalam 35,5 cm, tinggi 24 cm, dan tebal 0,5 cm, untuk menampung adonan patilo yang akan dicetak, (2) pelat penekan dari kayu dengan diameter 35 cm dan tebal 3,5 cm, (3) pelat pencetak berpori dari pelat besi nirkarat dengan ukuran 60 cm × 60 cm dan tebal 0,3 cm, (4) pelat penampung dari aluminium dengan diameter 30 cm dan tebal 0,5 cm, (5) motor listrik 1/3 PK dengan sistem transmisi daya menggunakan sabuk dan puli, serta (6) kerangka alat dengan dimensi (100 × 60 × 60) cm, terbuat dari besi siku 5 cm × 5 cm.

Kontak
N Bintoro, S Rahayoe, Dan Re Mashitoh - Universitas Gadjah Mada / Industri Makanan Patilo, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta

Sumber
Penerapan Iptek Program Vucer IX

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Minute Tapioca


Tapioca pudding is has always been my favorite dessert. It should be the National Dessert like flan is in Spain. They call it "minute" but it takes about fifteen to separate the egg whites and stir slowly to a boil. These tiny boxes last forever. I see they have changed the packaging on the new boxes too. I don't know why they have to do that. Pretty soon everything will look the same

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Instrument, tool, device, equipment CASSAVA

Cassava Grater
Thomas International (India)

We are major manufacturers of agricultural & food processing machineries in India for the past 30 years.
We are the Brand owners of "NANS" & "REEJA".
We had been exporting our machineries to all under developed countries.
Our Product is well known in Africa for its quality and brand.
We have specially designed & updated our machineries for African market.
We are proud to say that we are supplying our agricultural & food processing machineries to UNDP. Intrested buyers can kindly request for a quotation for our fast moving Branded products.
Kindly visit our website to know more about the range of agricultural & food processing machineries manufactured by us.

Link Info


Cassava Starch Processing Machinery

We are famous organization on agricultural products processing machinery in China.
We specially export and offer 3-30 tons per hour of cassava starch processing machinery to Africa,
South-east Aisa and South America.
Link Info


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Edible Alcohol/Ethanol

( Model Number : 95% )
Our edible alcohol is made from cassava. It is colourless transparently without peculiar stinking or impurity. It is volatile liquid, bibulous and flammable with ethanol content above 95 degree v/v. All its physical and chemical indexes are up to National Standard.

We adopt two enzymes method to steam, boil and saccharify continuously, large coordinated pots to ferment uninterruptedly, controlling distillation under different voltage full-automatically. With successive, steady, high grade and high productive manufacturing installation, we can specially make and supply large quantity of qualified alcohol to clients in short time. We also make every effort to explore up and down alcohol products, develop bioengineering, establish a industrial chain of green circulation.

Physical specification
Chrominance: 10 max
Ethyl alcohol /% (volume percentage): 95.0
Sulphuric acid test, size : 60 max
Oxidize time: 20 min
Aldehyde (calculated by acetaldehyde)/mg/L : 30 max
Methanol /mg/L: 150 max
Propyl alcohol /mg/L : 100 max
isobutyl alcohol + isoamyl alcohol /mg/L : 30 max
Acid (calculated by acetic acid)/mg/L : 20 max
Ester(calculated by acetic acid and ethylic ester)/mg/L : 25 max
Not volatile /mg/L : 25 max
Heavy metal (calculated by Pb/mg/L : 1 max
Cyanide (calculated by HCN)1)/mg/L : 5 max

It is mainly used in wine, beverage, cosmetics, perfume essence, dye, paint, dope and pharmacy industries and so on.

Origin China
Minimum order 1000tons

Contact Info
Company Guangxi Pingguo Kaite Biochemical Co., Ltd.
Address No,188,Pingxin Rd,Pingguo, Nanning Guangxizhuangzuzizhiqu 531400 China
Phone 86 - 0776 - 5828548
Fax 86 - 0776 - 5737773
Full Info

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Success for cassava research.

Resistant to pests and bigger harvests
A mighty root

Cassava is an important agricultural crop. It provides food for over 800 million people. Over the past four years Wilhelm Gruissem, ETH Professor of Plant Biotechnology at the ETH Institute of Plant Sciences (1), has directed his research to discovering how this plant can be protected from diseases with the help of genetic technology. Gruissem and his team have now received a science award from the Eiselen Foundation Ulm (2).

By Michael Breu

Cassava (Manihot esculenta)–more widely known as manioc in Europe–is one of the most important agricultural crops. Its root represents the staple food of over 800 million people. Global production is steadily increasing (178.8 million tons in 2001, of which 93.9 m was grown in Africa) and, after rice, maize and sugar cane, it is the fourth most important source of calories for populations in the tropics. "Cassava is undemanding as far as soil quality, fertilisers and irrigation is concerned," write Wilhelm Gruissem and his assistant Peng Zhang in a specialist article.

Cassava is mainly cultivated by small farmers. The leaves provide them with a vitamin-rich vegetable and they use the root to make various starchy foods. Both parts of the plant have to be handled with caution, as they both contain poisonous cyanides.

Limits to conventional selection

This is not the only problem. "In contrast to other cultivated plants, cassava can be modified only very slightly using conventional breeding methods," say Gruissem and Zhang. The reason for this is that, from a genetic point of view, the heterogeneity of manioc is like our indigenous fruit and grape varieties, and hybridisation therefore brings about totally new varieties. This means that genetic hybridisation is hardly possible. "There are hardly any genetically well-defined reproduction lines. Today's cultivated varieties stem almost exclusively from vegetative propagation."

As far as cassava is concerned genetic technology is an ideal alternative to conventional breeding. Gruissem is convinced: "Thanks to genetic technology we can find solutions for some of the most important problems in cassava".


Three examples:

- Firstly, pest resistance: "In some parts of East and Central Africa, in recent years the cultivation of cassava has come to a total halt in some areas owing to a viral infection. The disease is caused by the Gemini virus, African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV)“, write the experts. This particular virus exists in different genetic variations and is transmitted by the white fly (Bemisia tabaci). Up until now the only way to combat infection has been with massive doses of insecticide. With genetic technology it is now possible to activate the plants own immune system to fight this specific virus. "This is done by introducing small parts of the viral genome into the plant, which either directly attack the virus or trigger a targeted defense reaction," explains Gruissem and compares the result to a vaccination. Three strategies were tested at the ETH Institute for Plant Sciences: blocking the genetic expression of the virus by the means of anti-sense RNA against ACMV proteins, required in an early phase of the infection cycle; the production of a hypersensitive response after viral infection; and the prevention of viral reproduction by induced "gene silencing“. Here the expression of the virus's specific double helix RNA is activated in the plant's own defense mechanism, which either leads to the destruction of viral RNA and/or prevents its expression.

According to Gruissem, at the moment the anti-sense strategy is the most far advanced. "A great number of transgenic plants with multiple diverse genetic constructs were produced and tested for resistance to the virus using different methods. Under greenhouse conditions many plant lines demonstrated good to very good levels of resistance to diverse strains of ACMV."

Another problem–cassava hornworm

Another problem is the larvae of the cassava hornworm (Erinnyis ello). These larvae eat the leaves and cause harvest losses of between 10 and 50 per cent. "Transgenic cassava plants that express CryIA(b) protein from the Bacillus thuringiensis were produced in our lab and are currently being prepared for cassava hornworm resistance tests at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Columbia," says Gruissem.


- The second example is the extension of the life of the leaf. "Cassava plants often have very few leaves, as they wilt very quickly and die. Leaves age in an active process in the usual run of things, steered by the plant's hormones. A prolongation of this process would increase the number of leaves per plant and so increase harvest. In addition more leaves would also provide more primary food in the form of vegetables," say Gruissem and Zhang. "We have now produced transgenic cassava plants in which a specific cytokinine biosynthetic gene is activated when it begins to age. Cytokinines are plant hormones that can delay the aging process. The transgenic plants really do hang on to leaves longer; every aspect, otherwise observed when the plant ages, is slowed down. The plants produce storage roots earlier than the non-transgenic plants, have higher leaf harvests and, moreover, they can better withstand drought," as the two ETH experts have found out.



Food quality can be improved

- The third example concerns improving the quality of the food. Although the cassava roots contain a high proportion of starch, its protein content is not enough to cover the recommended daily intake of essential amino acids. "We have developed transgenic cassava plants that produce an artificial storage protein (ASP1). This protein is an imitation of naturally occurring storage proteins, as, for example, in sweet corn, and its amino acid sequence is optimised to suit human nutritional needs. We are currently investigating the protein content of this plant. At the same time further transgenic plants are being produced in which the specific expressions trigger is modified to produce higher concentrations of ASP1, especially in the root of the plant," is the hope raised by Gruissem and Zhang.

Copyright by ETH Life International

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Roots & Vegetable 9 Recipes








1. Cassava fritters

1 lb uncooked cassava, peeled, de-veined and cut into small pieces
3 cloves garlic
3 tbs chopped onion
1/4 cup chopped chives
1/2 hot pepper
1 tbs cornstarch
1/2 tsp baking powder
1 egg
Salt and freshly-ground black pepper to taste
Combine all ingredients in a food processor and process to a fine paste.
Season with salt and black pepper to taste.
Drop by teaspoonfuls into hot oil and fry until puffed and golden.
Makes about 15 fritters.

Chili pineapple dip
1 cup low-fat mayonnaise
2 tbs fresh lime juice
1/2 cup chopped fresh pineapple
1 tsp chili powder
2 cloves garlic minced
Salt to taste
1/4 cup chopped cilantro or chadon beni.
Combine all of the above ingredients, sprinkle with chadon beni or cilantro and serve with fritters.


2. Creamed cassava with lemon parsley gremolata

2 lbs cassava
1/2 cup milk
2 tbs butter salt
For the gremolata:
1 tsp lemon zest, finely grated
2 cloves garlic, minced
1/4 cup finely chopped parsley
Boil cassava in lots of water for about 20 to 30 minutes, until very soft, drain and remove inner core.
Heat milk with butter.
Add to drained cassava and crush cassava until creamy.
Add gremolata and stir.
Serves four or six


3. Grilled cassava with lime garlic sauce


2 lbs cassava, boiled and drained
1 tbs chopped garlic
1/3 cup olive oil or vegetable oil
2 tbs lime juice salt and pepper to taste
2 tbs chopped chadon beni
Remove inner vein from cassava; cut into two-inch lengths and place in a shallow baking dish.
Heat oil in a small saucepan, add garlic and lime, add salt and pepper.
Sauté for a few minutes more; do not brown garlic.
Add chadon beni, stir and pour mixture onto
cassava, covering all the cassava with the pieces.
Preheat broiler and place cassava under broiler.
Broil until hot and edges are browned.
Serves four or six
More delicious recipes can be found in Wendy's cookbooks: Caribbean Flavours and Modern Caribbean Cuisine.


4. CASSAVA (YUCA) TAMALES

Filling
1 lb ground beef
2 tbs fresh thyme
1 tsp salt
1 tsp freshly ground black pepper
2 tbs vegetable oil
1 tsp paprika
1 onion, chopped
2 cloves garlic minced
1 green bell pepper, chopped
8 ozs tinned tomatoes
1 tsp dried oregano
10 green olives, chopped
Season beef with thyme, salt and pepper.
Heat oil in a saute pan, add paprika and cook until oil is coloured. Add onion, garlic and pepper. Saute for a few minutes more. Add beef and stir well. Cook for a few minutes, add tomatoes and oregano. Simmer for about 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Taste and adjust seasonings. Add olives and turn off heat.

For the cassava
1 lb cassava
6 tbs butter
2 eggs
2 tbs cornstarch
1 tsp baking powder
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
Salt to taste
12 banana leaf squares (11x11"), softened
Boil the cassava in lots of water until very soft. Drain, remove inner core and crush with a potato masher. Do not use a processor.
Add butter and combine add eggs and mix well in between additions; you can use a hand mixer here.
Add cornstarch, baking powder, cheese and salt to taste. Combine.
To assemble
Place about two tablespoons cassava onto an oiled banana leaf. Gently spread with a spoon. Place about one tablespoon of filling onto the cassava. Fold the leaf over and press down. Fold the banana leaf like a package, tie either end with a piece of string, like a piece of candy.
Repeat.
Heat water in a large pot, place steamer insert into pot and place tamales on top. Cover and steam for 20-30 minutes.
Serve immediately.


5. ROASTED GARLIC AND SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES


2 lbs sweet potatoes
1 head garlic
1/4 cup butter
1/2 cup milk
2 eggs
Salt to taste
1 cup bread crumbs
1/2 cup flour
Vegetable oil for frying
Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit.
Slice off the top of the head of garlic, place on a roasting pan, drizzle with a little olive oil and wrap in foil. Roast for one hour. Cool.
Squeeze garlic from the bottom and the pulp should come right out. Set aside.
Boil sweet potatoes until very soft-about 40 minutes, depending on the size.
Peel and crush well. Add butter, one beaten egg, milk and roasted garlic cloves. Stir to combine. Season with salt.
Heat oil for frying. Roll potato into one-and-a-half-inch balls, dredge in flour, then in the other beaten egg, then in crumbs. Fry until golden.
Makes about eight-12


6. Creamed cassava with lemon parsley gremolata

2 lbs cassava
1/2 cup milk
2 tbs butter
Salt
(For the gremolata:)
1 tsp lemon zest, finely grated
2 cloves garlic, minced
1/4 cup finely chopped parsley
Boil cassava in lots of water for about 20-30 minutes, until very soft. Drain and remove inner core.
Heat milk with butter. Add to drained cassava and crush cassava until creamy.
Add gremolata and stir. Serves four to six.
(For a lighter side: use olive oil in place of butter. This recipe can be made with potatoes or any type of ground provision.)


7. Cassava saute

1 lb cassava, peeled and cut into 3-inch pieces
2 onions, sliced
2 tbs vegetable oil
2 cloves garlic, chopped
2 pimento peppers, seeded and cut into strips
1/2 congo pepper, seeded and chopped
1/4 cup each chopped fresh celery and parsley
2 tbs fresh thyme
Place cassava into a pot. Cover with water, add a pinch of salt and boil until tender, 20-25 minutes. Drain and cool.
Cut cassava into one-inch pieces, split in half and remove center fibre.
In a large non-stick frying pan heat oil and all onion, peppers and garlic. Saute until fragrant. Add cassava and toss until the cassava pieces become coated with the onion and garlic mixture.
Add fresh herbs and season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Continue cooking over a medium heat, scraping the bottom of the pan to prevent sticking. Cook for ten minutes or until cassava pieces are golden in colour.
Taste and adjust seasonings.
Serves four to six.


8. Cassava and salt fish brandade

Served with toast points for a delicious appetiser.
4 ozs salted codfish
1/2 lime
2 cloves garlic
1 hot pepper
1/3 cup olive oil
1/3 cup milk
2 tbs butter
1/2 cup milk
1 lb cassava, peeled, boiled and drained, inner core removed
1/4 cup chives, chopped
Salt and freshly ground black pepper
Squeeze lime juice on saltfish and boil in enough fresh water until tender, about five to ten minutes. Remove and flake.
Heat oil and reserve; heat milk and reserve.
Place fish in a blender or food processor and puree.
Add garlic and pepper. With motor running, add one-third cup of milk and oil alternately and process to a creamy consistency.
Remove and set aside. Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit.
Heat butter with half-cup milk. Add to cassava. Mash to a creamy consistency; a hand-held Mixmaster works well here. Add chives and combine.
Add salt and pepper to taste. Combine cassava with salt fish mixture and mix well.
Place into a shallow pie plate and bake until browned on top, about 15 minutes.
Serves six to eight.

9. Shitake-and-Pearl Onion Salad

Yield: 8 servings
10 ounces fresh pearl onions
1/4 cup olive oil
6 tablespoons (3/4 stick) butter
3/4 pound shiitake mushroom caps
(without stems)
1/4 cup sherry vinegar
1/4 cup amber rum
Salt Cracked black pepper
6-8 cups mixed greens
4 ounces goat cheese, crumbled
1. Bring medium saucepan of water to boil. Add onions; boil 3 minutes, then drain in colander and rinse with cold water. Snip ends of each onion and slip off peels. Set aside.
2. Heat olive oil in large skillet until almost smoking; add butter. When butter melts, add mushrooms and sauté until mushrooms brown around edges. Add pearl onions; cook until lightly browned. Push vegetables to sides of pan; pour in vinegar and rum. Cook, scraping bottom of skillet with wooden spoon to release browned bits, until liquid comes to boil and reduces to a glaze. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Let cool slightly.
3. To serve, cover individual salad plates with salad greens, using 3/4-1 cup per serving. Spoon mushroom mixture over lettuce; top each serving with 1/2 ounce crumbled goat cheese.

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Access to Asian Vegetables Thesaurus

Sweet Potato
Ipomoea batatas

meaning

arti lain.........

English:
yam, batatas, boniato, white-fleshed sweet potato

Arabic:
ba ta tah helua

Chinese:
gan shu, gan ye, fan shu

Danish:
sod kartoffel, bataat

Dutch:
bataat, zoete aardappel

Filipino:
kamote

French:
patate douce
German:
Süßkartoffel, Batate

Hindi:
sakarkand, mitha alu

Indonesian:
ubi jalor, hwi, keledek, ketela rambat, tela, bodin, ubi merah
Italian:
patata americana, patata kolce, batata

Japanese:
satsuma-imo, kanjo

Malay:
ubi keledek, ubi kastela, ubi keladi

Portuguese:
batata doce

Russian:
batat

Spanish:
batata, boniato, camote, papa dulce, moniato

Thai:
muntail, hua mun, man thet

Vietnamese:
lá khoai lang, lá khoai mony

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